Kidney TumourUro-Oncology Unit

There are several types of malignant kidney tumours that are collectively known as renal cell cancer. In recent years, through the development and use of imaging tests such as ultrasound of the urinary system and CT, the number of diagnoses in early stages has increased, achieving improvements in the survival. In addition, nephron-sparing surgery (or partial nephrectomy) allows removing only the tumour, preserving the organ for the most part and providing a higher quality of life for the patient in the long term.

Our Unit is equipped with specialised personnel and highly experienced surgeons to perform these surgical techniques, which are among the most complex within our speciality. We are also technologically equipped with all the devices available on the market: da Vinci robot, laparoscopy, kidney embolisation, among others.

Kidney tumours represent 2-3% of all adult cancers. It predominates in men in the sixth-seventh decade of life and is clearly related to tobacco use (multiplying up to 2.5 times the risk of kidney tumour in patients who smoke). Other risk factors include obesity, hypertension, end-stage renal failure and having first-degree relatives with kidney cancer. Other possible risk factors have been described (such as exposure to carcinogens, dietary habits, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, etc.) but with inconclusive data. The best prevention method is to avoid tobacco and obesity.

There are several types of malignant kidney tumours, the most frequent being the clear cell carcinoma (70-80%), the papillary tumour (10-15%) and the chromophobe tumour (3-5%).

More than 50% of kidney tumours are diagnosed incidentally, that is to say, they are found through diagnostic tests carried out for another reason, since they rarely produce symptoms. Symptoms appear due to the tumour growth. The classic symptom triad includes pain, appearance of an abdominal mass and haematuria. Retroperitoneal bleeding or paraneoplastic syndromes may also occur.